Mercury

Diameter:3031 miles (4,878 km)

Mass:3.3011×10^23kg (0.055 Earths)

Composition by volume:

42%molecular oxygen

29%sodium

22%hydrogen

6.0%helium

0.5%potassium

0.5%carbon monoxide

Trace amounts of argon, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor, xenon, and neon

Venus

Diameter:7,521 miles (12,104 km)

Mass:4.8675x️10^24kg (0.815 Earths)

Composition by volume:

96.5%carbon dioxide

3.5%nitrogen

0.015%sulfur dioxide

0.007%argon

0.002%water vapour

0.0017%carbon monoxide

Trace amounts of carbonyl sulfide, hydrogen chloride, hydrogen fluoride

Mars

Diameter:4,217 miles (6,787 km)

Mass:6.4171×10^23kg (0.107 Earths)

Composition by volume:

95.97%carbon dioxide

1.93%argon

1.89%nitrogen

0.146%oxygen

0.0557%carbon monoxide

0.0066%water vapour

Trace amounts of carbonyl sulfide, hydrogen chloride, hydrogen fluoride

Jupiter

Diameter:86,881 miles (139,822 km)

Mass:1.8982×10^27kg (317.8 Earths)

Composition by volume:

89.4%hydrogen

10.2%helium

0.3%methane

0.026%ammonia

0.0028%hydrogen deuteride

0.0006%ethane

Trace amounts of carbonyl sulfide, hydrogen chloride, hydrogen fluoride

Saturn

Diameter:74,900 miles (120,500 km)

Mass:5.6834×10^26kg (95.159 Earths)

Composition by volume:

96.3%hydrogen

3.24%helium

0.45%methane

0.0125%ammonia

0.0110%hydrogen deuteride

0.0007%carbon monoxide

Trace amounts of carbonyl sulfide, hydrogen chloride, hydrogen fluoride

Uranus

Diameter:31,763 miles (51,120 km)

Mass:8.68×10^25kg (14.536 Earths)

Composition by volume:

82.5%hydrogen

15%helium

2.3%methane

0.009%hydrogen deuteride

0.002%water vapour

0.0017%carbon monoxide

Trace amounts of carbonyl sulfide, hydrogen chloride, hydrogen fluoride

Neptune

Diameter:30,775 miles (49,530 km)

Mass:1.0243×10^26kg (17.147 Earths)

Composition by volume:

80%hydrogen

19%helium

1.5%methane

0.019%hydrogen deuteride

0.00015%ethane

0.00005%carbon monoxide

Trace amounts of carbonyl sulfide, hydrogen chloride, hydrogen fluoride

Pluto

Diameter:1,430 miles (2,301 km)

Mass:1.303×10^22 kg (0.00218 Earths)

Composition by volume:

(Exact composition unknown to humans)

??%nitrogen

??%methane

??%carbon monoxide

??%argon

??%water vapour

Trace amounts of carbonyl sulfide, hydrogen chloride, hydrogen fluoride

Snakes entwined on his staff protect
Mercury, messenger of Roman gods
The snakes entwined in Mercury’s symbol ☿
—— To Mercury
Love and beauty, springtime and flowers
The Roman goddess Venus ruled them all.
What better than a hand mirror for her? ♀
—— To Venus
Gaea, Earth goddess of the ancient Greeks,
Was called Terra Mater - Earth Mother
Greek sign for sphaira
—— To Earth
Like a badge of blood in the sky,
Red Planet has long stood for gods of war.
Shield and spear form the planet’s symbol ♂
—— To Mars
King of Roman gods: Jupiter,
His is a fitting one for our largest planet.
Sign for lightning bolt gives its symbol ♃
—— To Jupiter
Harvest time belonged to the god of reaping
Whom the Romans called Saturn.
Symbol like sickle represents the planet ♄
—— To Saturn
The seventh planet for old Roman god Uranus
Father of Saturn and grandfather of Jupiter
Symbol from a sign for the metal platinum ⛢
—— To Uranus
An ocean god for an oea-colored planet
Neptune, Roman god of the sea.
Fishing spear, trident, for symbol ♆
—— To Neptune
Pluto rules the dark underworld of myth.
The darkly lit outermost world bears his name.
The “Pl” of Pluto is the planet’s symbol ♇
—— To Pluto